Writing and Editing Terms Defined

Like any profession, writers and editors have their own set of jargon. The following list defines the various levels of writing and editing so that you can understand our pricing model when we provide you with quotes for projects.


With your background information and notes or through our own research and interviews (separate research fee may apply) we will develop comprehensive documents to your specifications. Work also includes the development of style guidelines.

Substantive editing:

Reorganize and rewrite your document, developing content that is logical, accurate, and complete and appropriate for the intended audience. Substantive editing may also take the form of a document critique.


Check for errors of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and usage, ensure consistency of style throughout the document, and clear up confusing and awkward writing. Copyediting should be done before the document is laid out.


Review already-edited documents and look at it one final time, checking for any remaining errors and inconsistencies. Proofreading is best done after the document is laid out.

One round of revisions:

Make substantive changes, and if necessary, provide a complete course correction from the first draft presented to client.

One round of refinements:

Make minor edits to content based on previous edits and requests concerning content.

Research and Fact Checking:

This takes the form of traditional library, online, or interview collection of facts. Research is usually incorporated with original writing. Fact checking is usually incorporated with editing services.


If material given for editing is given in hardcopy only, there will be a typing fee.

Publications Management:

Develop documents and take them through a complete document life-cycle program from original concept to final printed product.